• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Open access

William D. Binder, MD, Editor-in-Chief


Wilderness and Environmental Medicine (WEM) is the official journal of the Wilderness Medical Society. It is published quarterly and is devoted to original scientific and technical contributions related in whole or in part to wilderness or environmental medicine. Non-solicited manuscripts are considered for the following categories:

Original Research: Original studies of basic or clinical research in areas relevant to wilderness medicine. Preferred 3500 word maximum (not including abstract, tables, figures, or references)

Brief Reports: Preliminary findings or small sample-sized studies that generate new hypotheses for further research. Reports should follow the guidelines under Preparation of Manuscripts. Preferred 1500-2000 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references), with no more than approximately 10 references.

Case Reports: Brief descriptions of unique wilderness medicine problems or situations. Include narrative abstract, introduction, and discussion of implications. Preferred 2000-word maximum (not including abstract, tables, figures, or references).

Review Articles: Extensive, well-referenced reviews of the literature on a narrow relevant topic. Preferred 4000-word maximum (not including abstract, tables, figures, or references); no more than 100 references. Systematic reviews are preferred over narrative reviews.

Concepts: Descriptions of clinical and non-clinical wilderness medical problems and solutions. Articles may focus on practical "how-to" management techniques and/or new approaches to the planning, management, provision of wilderness medical services, or research. Preferred 3500-word maximum (not including abstract, tables, figures, or references).

Letters to the Editor: Observations, opinions, current topics and/or corrections on topics appearing in WEM, generally not to exceed 1000 words, with a maximum of 10 references, one of which should be to the recent WEM article, if applicable. Original scientific work is usually not considered appropriate for Letters.

Letters in Reply: Replies by authors should not exceed 1000 words of text and 11 references inclusive of the article at issue and the inciting letter.

Editorials: Commentaries on major current issues or controversies with significant implications for wilderness and environmental medicine. Preferred 1500-word maximum, excluding references.

Lessons from History: Classic papers in the medical literature relating to wilderness medicine. Such papers should have been first to describe a new problem, providing new information about old subjects, or describing new, effective methods of treatment or prevention. A complete reference citation of the original article and a commentary about the article should accompany the submission. Preferred 3000-word maximum (not including figures or references).

Clinical Images: Pictures that teach something about wilderness medicine, as well as tell an engaging story. The focus will be on clinical images, each accompanied by text explaining the photograph and briefly reviewing the diagnosis and treatment of the condition it illustrates. If appropriate for the topic, an image and case report should be presented as a mystery, with the diagnosis and discussion appearing after a page break. 1000-1500 words (not including figures and references), with generally no more than 5 references.

Wilderness Images: High-quality, high-resolution (300 dpi) digital images of wilderness subjects. Include photo title and informative description (<300 words) and the appropriate photographer's credit line. Where relevant, include geographical coordinates of where the image was taken.

Wilderness Essays: Personal essays or anecdotes relating to the wilderness and medicine. Preferred 3000-word maximum.

Book Reviews: Please contact the Editorial Office ( for more information.

WMS Practice Guidelines: Please contact the Editorial Office ( for more information.


Pertinent topics include, but are not limited to, medical, physiological, pharmacological, and expeditionary considerations of: high altitude and climbing; hypothermia and cold-induced injuries; heat/cold-related disorders; weather-related phenomena and natural environmental disasters; toxinology; drowning and near-drowning; diving and barotrauma; hazardous plants, reptiles, insects, and marine animals; ethnobotany; animal attacks; rugged or austere environments; tropical disease and immunizations; search and rescue; and ethical, legal and research issues.


Please read the submission guidelines carefully to prepare your manuscript. Submissions that are incomplete or that do not comply with the guidelines below will be returned to the author for completion before they will be entered into the editorial process.
To submit your manuscript electronically, go to and sign in. As a new author with this journal, you will be able to create a login name and password for your use only.
Manuscripts are considered for publication in WEM with the understanding that neither the manuscript nor any part of its text, figures, or tables have been published in, accepted for publication in, or submitted at the same time to another journal. Submission can follow publication of preliminary findings elsewhere in the form of an abstract.
When submitting a manuscript, the corresponding author must make a full statement to the Editor-in-Chief about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as prior or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted manuscript to help the Editor-in-Chief decide how to deal with the matter.
WEM endorses the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals guidelines (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [ICMJE]) which are available here: ICMJE recommendations. WEM uses the American Medical Association Manual of Style 10th edition and the Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition, for editorial style.

English Language
WEM accepts international manuscripts in English with American spelling. Authors whose first language is not English are encouraged to secure a high-level review of grammar to ensure proper English usage. Elsevier offers a professional English editing service which authors may use at their own expense. Please visit editing service for more information.
Accepted manuscripts are subject to editorial changes, and the paper becomes the permanent property of WEM and may not be published elsewhere without permission. The Editor reserves the right to edit manuscripts to comply with WEM's format, remove redundancies, and improve clarity without altering the meaning.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Please include the following files with submission:

1. Cover letter to Editor-in-Chief Dr. William D. Binder providing corresponding author's information (name, address, telephone number, and email address) and stating the category of article the manuscript represents. Optional: suggest two or three potential peer reviewers whom you deem appropriate and knowledgeable to review your manuscript; include contact information and email addresses.

2. The full text with the following items beginning on a new page: (1) title page (title, short title, author names/degrees/affiliations, corresponding author contact information, summary tallies [word count of abstract, word count of manuscript including references, reference count, figure count, table count]), (2) abstract, keywords, (3) main text, (4) acknowledgments (optional), author contributions (required), financial/material support statement (required), disclosure statement (required), (5) references, and (6) figure legends.

3. Upload tables and figures as separate individual files.

4. Each author on a submitted manuscript must complete and submit an ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. The form can be downloaded here: The form must be saved to your computer, filled out, and then uploaded with your submission. The form is not viewable in a web browser or email "preview" window. If you receive an error message when clicking the link to access the form, save the file to your computer, and then open it with Adobe Acrobat. It is designed to be opened with Adobe Acrobat only.

5. If appropriate, a copy of the permission to reproduce previously published materials from the publisher or owner of the material.

Authors are responsible for assuring they have appropriate ethical approval, consent to use photographs of identifiable individuals, permission for the use of personal communications, permission from the copyright holder for the use of any previously published tables or figures, and approval for acknowledgment from all individuals referred to in the acknowledgment section. Authors are responsible for disclosing at submission whether the results/data/figures any other portions of this work has been previously published in any form (eg, conference proceeding, magazine, newsletter, blog post, etc.).

Note that copyright release forms are not required at submission, and will be sent automatically to corresponding authors along with first proofs for review.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing. Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Preparation of manuscripts

Format manuscript in a Word document in 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins on an 8.5 x 11-inch page, with a single space after periods, and with continuous line numbering (that is, numbering that does not restart at 1 on each page) . Reminder: submissions must be formatted correctly to be entered into the review process.
Do not embed author names, dates, fonts, links, footnotes in a hidden field, field codes, bookmarks, comments, hypertext links, passwords, objects, worksheets, databases, artwork, or slides (such as PowerPoint) in the text. References and text citations should be in the form of normal text with no automation in the submitted form (such as automated paragraph spacing and indentation).

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Include first names of the author and middle initials, if applicable. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of the co-authors. Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions: (1) ) to conception and design or to analysis and interpretation of data; (2) ) to drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) to final approval of the version to be published. WEM does not accept crediting dual first authorship or dual corresponding authors. Neither general supervision of a research group nor provision of financial support is sufficient for authorship credit.
Scientific submissions should contain the sections described below.

The title page (page 1) should contain (1) a concise and informative title; (2) an identified short running head (short title) of no more than 40 characters, including spaces; (3) the first name (spelled out), middle initial, and last name of each author with highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation (do not include professional designations such as FACMT, FAWM, etc.; these are not published in the journal); (4) contact information for the corresponding author; (5) summary tallies (word count of abstract, word count of the manuscript including references, word count of the manuscript excluding references, reference count, figure count, table count); and (6) details of formal presentation of the word at a scientific meeting (meeting name, date, and location), if applicable.

All manuscripts that are reports of original data from scientific investigations (original research and brief report categories) must be submitted with a structured abstract of no more than 250 words with the following headings: Introduction, Methods (include information on design, setting, participants, interventions, and main outcomes measured), Results, and Conclusions.

Case reports, review articles, and concept articles should include a narrative abstract of 250 words or fewer and outline the purpose of the article, major findings, and recommendations. Abstracts for review articles should include the literature search and selection strategy.

Keywords: Immediately following the abstract, include 4-6 keywords or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross-indexing articles. Use terms from the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus where relevant. Non-MeSH terms can be included where appropriate. Words in the title of the article should not be included in the keyword list since these will already be captured.


Briefly develop the rationale for the study, report, or observation. Include only strictly pertinent references, and do not review the subject extensively. Do not include methods, data, or conclusions from the work being reported. Close the section with a clear statement of purpose, preferably as a single sentence.

Present the methods in a logical sequence, generally following the order in which work was done.
All studies involving human or animal research must indicate approval by an institution's human or animal subject review board (IRB). A statement of ethics approval or determination of exemption that includes the name of the institution(s) providing the oversight. Authors must confirm that appropriate consent was obtained from all human subjects or that this requirement was waived by the review committee.

Describe the selection of the observational or experimental subjects, including controls. Identify the methods, apparatus (manufacturer's name and city, state/province, and country in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Name well established methods; provide references and brief descriptions of methods that have been published but are not well known; and describe in detail new or substantially modified methods. Identify all drugs and chemicals used, including generic names and route(s) of administration. Generic names should lead, with proprietary names following parenthetically, when appropriate.

Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty. The journal standard for describing central tendency and variability is mean ± with range. Discuss eligibility of experimental subjects, randomization, methods of blinding, and a threshold for P values to indicate statistically significant differences.

Clinical Trials
A clinical trial is defined as "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes." As per the Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, any clinical trial under consideration for publication must be registered with (United States) or a WHO approved trial registry. The trial registry number should be included in the methods section of the paper. Trials that have not been registered should provide an explanation, with the understanding that not registering a trial may be sufficient grounds for rejection. For randomized controlled trials, we strongly recommend authors read and follow the guidelines at:

Present the results in a logical sequence, often mirroring the methods, using tables and illustrations where appropriate. Include numbers of observations and statistical significance of the findings when appropriate. Present any complications or meaningful losses to observations. Do not repeat data found in the tables or illustrations in the text. Report numbers only to meaningful levels of implied precision (ie, representative of the precision of the measurement or measuring tool). For example, all percentages greater than one must be rounded to whole units only. Systeme International units should be used as a default. If non-SI units are to be presented, they should be placed parenthetically after the SI units.


Emphasize the new and important aspects of both the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat details provided in the introduction or the results sections. Include the implications of the findings, including those for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies. Close with a named limitations subsection that describes any meaningful weaknesses of the research, specifically methodological factors that may affect the interpretation, validity, or generalizability of the results and/or potential sources of bias. There should be no attempt to deflect from or downplay limitations, and this subsection should not be combined with others.

The conclusions must reflect the goals for and content of the manuscript and must be consistent with the prioritization and tone of the conclusions found in the abstract. Avoid unqualified statements not well supported by the data. Include recommendations where warranted.

(Not required for Letters to the Editor, Lessons from History, Wilderness Images, Clinical Images, or Book Reviews) One or more statements should specify (1) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as noteworthy contribution of assisting colleagues; and (2) technical assistance. Recognition of financial and material support should be placed in the Financial/Material Support Statement described below.

Author Contributions
(Not required for Letters to the Editor, Lessons from History, Wilderness Images, Clinical Images, or Book Reviews; not required for single-author works) Listing each author's contribution to the work is required for submission. The contributing authors should be identified by their initials (no periods) in parentheses after each category. The following categories can be used as appropriate: study concept and design (); data acquisition(); data analysis (); drafting and critical revision of the manuscript (); and approval of final manuscript (). All authors must approve the final manuscript. When there are four or more authors, replace parenthetical initials with "all authors approved the final manuscript. Note that the securing of funding cannot be considered a factor to qualify for authorship.

Financial/Material Support Statement
(Not required for Letters to the Editor, Lessons from History, Wilderness Images, Clinical Images, or Book Reviews)
Authors must disclose any financial and/or material support in the form of grants, equipment, and/or study materials; and to specify the nature of the support. If there is none, it should be stated as "Financial/Material Support: None."

Disclosure Statement
(Not required for Letters to the Editor, Lessons from History, Wilderness Images, Clinical Images, or Book Reviews) Authors are required to disclose any conflict or potential conflicts of interest, either commercial or professional. These include patent-licensing agreements, stock ownership or other equity interest, consultancies, institutional affiliations, and corporate sponsorship. If there are none, it should be stated as "Disclosures: None."


References must be verified by authors through the original documents. Authors must ensure that references are formatted in full compliance with submission guidelines. Manuscript management systems rarely generate reference lists perfectly and authors should not rely on these as a check of required form. If manuscript management systems are used to generate reference lists the codes must be stripped out prior to submission so that the reference list is configured as plain text. Authors should preserve a copy with the codes list the first 6 and to facilitate revision, but only plain text versions should be submitted.

Only formally published material is unquestionably suitable for inclusion in the reference list. The reference list should not include general web pages (eg, "landing pages") or web-based material that is expected to change dynamically. Content that does not have specific version dates is likely problematic. Content not appropriate for inclusion in the reference list may be appropriate for text citation alone. See specific guidelines below to determine where and how to cite web material and other nontraditional sources.

References are numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Author names should not appear in the text. Identify references in the text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals. References cited only in tables or in legends should be numbered in accordance with a sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or illustration. Correct format examples follow:

Standard journal article
List all authors when 6 or fewer; when 7 or more, list the first 6 and add “et al”. Include the middle initial of authors, if available. List authors by last name followed by first and middle initial (no periods). Article titles should be presented in sentence capitalization style. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in PubMed. Include year of publication, volume, issue number, and inclusive page numbers, with closing page numbers fully abbreviated (eg, "751–3"). Do not include month of publication or doi.

Moynihan MJ, Manganiello MD. A review of urologic conditions in remote and austere environments: presentation, evaluation, and management. Wilderness Environ Med. 2020;31(3):358–66.

Dekker MCJ, Mremi A, Kilonzo KG, Nyakunga G, Sakita F, Mvungi M, et al. Altitude-related disorders on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: two-year survey in a local referral center. Wilderness Environ Med. 2021;32(1):36–40.

Worthing RM, Percy RL, Joslin JD. Prevention of friction blisters in outdoor pursuits: a systematic review. Wilderness Environ Med. 2017;28(2):139–49

Chapter in a book
Phillips LL, Semple J. Bites and injuries inflicted by wild and domestic animals. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:618–45.

Entire book

Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2016. [Note: It will generally not be appropriate to cite a complex book as a single reference.]

Conference proceedings
(Used only for published proceedings. If proceedings are unpublished, cite in-text as a personal communication; guidelines below.)
Pollock NW. Factors in decompression stress. In: Pollock NW, Sellers SH, Godfrey JM, eds. Rebreathers and Scientific Diving. Proceedings of NPS/NOAA/DAN/AAUS Workshop. Wrigley Marine Science Center, Catalina Island, CA; 2016:145-56.

In press
Krabak BJ, Lipman GS, Waite BL, Rundell SD. Exercise-associated hyponatremia, hypernatremia, and hydration status in multistage ultramarathons. Wilderness Environ Med. In press.

Epublished before print
Murray J, Rust DA. Cervical spine alignment in helmeted skiers and snowboarders with suspected head and neck injuries: comparison of lateral C-spine radiographs before and after helmet removal and implications for ski patrol transport. Wilderness Environ Med. 2017 [Epub ahead of print].

Web-based material will often not qualify as references. Internet pages and links change frequently, and are often obsolete by the time the manuscript goes to press. Authors wishing to include web-based content must describe in the cover letter their search for an appropriate published reference and justify the reasons that a web-based reference must be included. The following reference format should be used:
National Trust for Nature Conservation. Annapurna conservation area project. Available at: Accessed January 10, 2017.

Personal Communications
Do not include "personal communications" in the reference list. The following forms may be used in the text:
"In a conversation with PH Westar, MD (July 2020)…"
"According to a letter from PH Westar, MD, in July 2020…"
"Similar finds have been noted by PH Westar, MD, (written communication, July 2020)…" NOTE: Author must hold written communications to cite as a "personal communication."

7. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

  • Format manuscript in a Word document in 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins on an 8.5 x 11-inch page, with a single space after periods, and with continuous line numbering (that is, numbering that does not restart at 1 on each page) and pages numbered in upper right with the title page as page 1.
  • Recommended methods text example "Data are presented as mean±SD (with range)." Once defined in the methods, there should be no mention of "mean" in the results; the paired values will stand without further definition (example: "Subject height was 176±11 cm.").
  • All studies involving human or animal research must include a statement of ethics approval and/or exempt status that includes name of institution(s) granting approval. This should typically lead the methods section.
  • Report numbers only to meaningful levels of implied precision (ie, representative of the precision of the measurement or measuring tool). For example, percentages greater than one should only be presented as whole numbers.
  • The format standard is US English. Common spelling/layout errors: "keywords," "acknowledgments," "mm Hg," "mL."
  • Standard abbreviations should be used without definition following all numerals, including "s" for "second(s)," "min" for "minute(s)," "h" for "hour(s)," "d" for "day(s)," "wk" for "week(s)," "mo" for "month(s)," and "y" for "year(s)." "SD" stands for "standard deviation" without definition.
  • Units should be presented with scientific depiction, for example: beats·min−1; breaths·min−1; mL·kg−1min−1; mmol·L−1.
  • "Sex" (a biological construct) is appropriate to use if grouping is limited to male and female. "Gender" (a sociological construct) is only appropriate if additional groups are included. The term used must be appropriate and consistent throughout the manuscript.
  • Reference formatting must follow journal standard.
  • Author contributions, disclosures, and financial/material support statements must be included in the manuscript text.
  • Eliminate unnecessary text from acknowledgments. For example, "We thank…" is both more economical and less ambiguous than, "We would like to thank…"


Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions as a separate section of the text; do not attach to the figures. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Legends should be located within the white space of figures where feasible to allow maximum print sizes for one- or two-column formats. Keep text within illustrations to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Tables and Figures should not be included in the manuscript document but uploaded as separate individual documents as directed in the submission system.

  • Cite each table in the text in consecutive order as Table 1, Table 2, etc. (Note: number even if only one.)
  • Avoid shading within tables.
  • Minimize use of internal lines.
  • Format each table double-spaced in a separate Word document file.
  • Do not submit tables as image files.
  • Number each table consecutively in the order of its first citation in the text, and supply a brief title.
  • Provide an appropriate descriptive title above each table that follows the table number.
  • Explain all non-standard abbreviations and acronyms in descriptive text of tables.
  • Identify statistical measures of variation, such as standard deviation, with the mean.
  • If data are used from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge in descriptive text.
  • Give each column a short heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.
  • Place units in header parenthetically, where feasible, or in the leftmost column, if appropriate, and avoid listing units repetitively within tables.


Prepare figures to optimize the accurate depiction of data. To ensure the maximized size in print:
  • Embed legends within the white space of figures whenever possible.
  • Use unique lines (eg, solid, short dash, long dash) as well as unique markers where practical to improve visual distinction if printed in grayscale.
  • All text should be large and close to if not uniform in size to maximize scalability.
  • Note that figures will be printed in single column format when feasible.
  • Do not make bold axes labels, scales, or legends.
  • Avoid unnecessary shading within figures.
  • Ensure axes lines, labels, and scale values are solid black for maximal contrast.
  • Avoid unnecessary use of gridlines. If they are necessary they should be thin and lower contrast grayscale to not be distracting.
  • Remove unnecessary decimal places from axes scale numbers.
  • Do not include outside borders (ie, those outside the axes labels).


Example 1
Example 2
Example 3
  • Cite each figure in the text in consecutive order as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.
  • Include a separate figure legend in the manuscript text on a separate page immediately following the references.
  • Use uniform lettering and sizing in original artwork. Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font. Only use Arial font in your illustrations.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
  • Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics."
    • TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi
    • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    • TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    • TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.

Do not:
  • Supply embedded graphics in your word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Guidelines for Electronic Figure Preparation/Please Read Carefully

The journal uses a streamlined production process that takes authors' files straight to typesetting from the submission system. The specifications listed here will ensure your submitted artwork will transition smoothly to production. Following these instructions also ensures that you will create the smallest possible file size, which will speed the file upload step of the submission process.

Authors should submit their figures according to the specifications listed below. Figures should be submitted at one of two widths to match the column widths used in the journal and submitted at a high resolution. Please carefully review the specific instructions below before submitting your figures.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

Color Artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS, or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures, then Elsevier will ensure at no additional charge that these figures will appear in color on the Web (eg, the journal website, ScienceDirect, and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only.

Important Notes
  • Figures submitted at dimensions and resolutions greater than those specified above make digital file sizes larger and, therefore, can take longer to upload and access. Specifically, attempting to load figure files that exceed 14 MB can cause a delay in the submission process.
  • Be sure that when your figures are reduced that the text is still readable and the images meet our resolution requirements.
  • Images created for or captured from a computer screen or the Web are not optimal for printing purposes because they are down-sampled to ~72 dpi.
  • Please submit only high-resolution images. Do not submit files that have been "up-sampled" from low-resolution originals.
  • TIFF images, even when saved at the proper size and resolution, can be quite large and may take a long time to transfer over the Internet.
  • Color: There is no charge for black and white figures and tables. Color may be considered for certain figures at the discretion of the Editor. Unless otherwise stated, all color figures will appear in black and white in print and in color online. In graphs, pattern fills are often a better choice than color fills. When using color in graphs and line art, use bold, dark colors that differ significantly from one another. Light colors do not reproduce well on a screen or in print.
  • Colors appear/reproduce differently depending on the type of monitor and printer being used. Color on monitors is displayed as RGB, whereas the journal is published using CMYK.
  • The quality of your figures will only be as good as the lowest-resolution element placed in them. In other words, if you place a 72 dpi line graph in a 600 dpi TIFF, the result is still a 72 dpi image, which is unacceptable for print purposes. Be sure your originals are submitted at the required resolution.

Warning! Some programs may down-sample your images to low resolution. Do not use the "optimize for web" wizard in PowerPoint for any figures you intend to use in print. JPEG uses a glossy data compression technique, and every time you re-save a JPEG, resolution is lost. Please submit first generation JPEGs only.


The manuscript will be referred to acknowledged expert peer reviewers and, if appropriate, an Associate or Section Editor, prior to the Editor's decision regarding publication. Reviewers are advised that they should recuse themselves from review of the submission if a conflict of interest exists. If necessary, the manuscript will be returned to the author(s) for revision(s) prior to a final decision. All attempts are made to obtain prompt reviews and a decision regarding need for revision, acceptance, or rejection.


After receiving a decision from the Editor-in-Chief and revising the manuscript as instructed, the revision should be submitted with a point-by-point response letter explaining revisions based on editors' and reviewers' comments. The explanations can be brief, often simply an acknowledgment that appropriate changes were made in the manuscript. This letter must be presented in text form, with the original comment followed by the response. Comment bubbles embedded in the revision are not adequate as a response to reviewers. All material changes should be made in the manuscript so future readers can benefit. Submit two versions of the revised manuscript: one version with changes tracked that should appear first, and one "clean" version without changes tracked. Upload revisions to


Once your article is accepted for publication, galley proofs in PDF format will be sent via e-mail to the corresponding author for correction prior to publication. The difficulty and expense involved in making amendments at the proof stage make it essential for authors to carefully prepare the original manuscript. Please be aware that alterations to the original text at the proof stage are strongly discouraged and may result in charges to the author. To enable rapid publication, the authors are encouraged to return all correspondence within 48 hours. The journal offers continuing medical education (CME) credit for selected, accepted articles. If selected, the journal office will ask corresponding authors to provide the following materials: 4 multiple-choice questions (with 5 alternatives, and no multiple-multiple choice, focused on key lessons to be learned), a gap analysis regarding the work being published, and a signed disclosure form. Participation is voluntary, but it does increase the profile and exposure of articles.


Each author on a submitted manuscript must complete and submit an ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. The form can be downloaded here: ICMJE form link The form must be saved to your computer, filled out, and then uploaded with your submission. The form is not viewable in a web browser or email "preview" window. If you receive an error message when clicking the link to access the form, save the file to your computer, and then open it with Adobe Acrobat. It is designed to be opened with Adobe Acrobat only.
Authors must also disclose in their manuscript, ahead of the References, any commercial and professional relationships that might pose a conflict of interest. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine journal guidelines require that the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, Editorial Board, and the Section Editors be excluded from the editorial process if listed as an author on a submitted manuscript.


Authors must keep original data and statistical analyses for 5 years after publication to allow for repetition or examination by others if necessary. Regional, institutional, or governmental guidelines may require authors to keep information for a longer period.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your reference list. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases:

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see


As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see


For inquiries relating to submitting a manuscript (including electronic submission), please visit For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at You can also check our Author FAQs at and/or visit the Elsevier Support Center.

Questions regarding your submission? Please contact:
Alicia Byrne, Managing Editor
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine