Validating the Remote First Aid Self-Efficacy Scale for Use in Evaluation and Training of First Responders in Remote Contexts

Published:November 26, 2022DOI:


      The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the remote first aid self-efficacy scale (RFA SES). The RFA SES is a 30-item self-report scale developed in response to emerging evidence showing that self-efficacy is predictive of performance.


      Trained alumni from Wilderness Medical Associates (WMA) training courses and less trained students from Laurentian University (LU) were recruited via email to complete an online questionnaire at 2 different periods (T1 and T2). The questionnaire included demographic questions, the 30-item RFA SES, the 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), and the 10-item generalized self-efficacy scale (GSES). Data analysis included assessment of the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the scale.


      There were 448 alumni from WMA and 1106 students from LU who participated in the study. The RFA SES demonstrated a clear unidimensional structure. The mean interitem correlation was 0.75 at T1. Test-retest reliability (T1 to T2) was high for both the LU group (intraclass correlation [ICC]=0.90) and the WMA group (ICC=0.92). Moderate correlations were found between RFA SES and CD-RISC (r=0.42, P<0.001), a general measure of resilience, and the GSES (r=0.48, P<0.001), a general measure of self-efficacy. Wilderness Medical Associates participants showed higher mean scores than LU students at T1 (t [569]=16.2, P<0.001).


      The RFA SES is a unidimensional, reliable, and potentially valid scale. Further research should focus on item reduction followed by additional tests of reliability and validity.


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